Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M. Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J. Snowling

First published: 7 November 2016

DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12648

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This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors.


Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were assessed at the start of formal reading instruction (age 5½), using measures of phoneme awareness, word-level reading and spelling; and 3 years later (age 8), using measures of word-level reading, spelling and reading comprehension.